Chronic pain is one of the most common reasons for visit to primary medical centers. Evidences show that cognitive-behavioral therapy is the effective therapy in chronic pains. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy on alexithymia and pains self-efficacy of patients with chronic pain. For this purpose, in a quasi-experimental plan and pre-test and post-test kind with control group, 45 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain who visited to the therapeutic-sanitary centers in Ahwaz city were selected by using the available sampling method and they were assigned randomly in two experimental and control groups. Groups were tested in terms of alexithymia and self-effectiveness of pain at first. Then behavioral-cognitive training was presented in the time of 8 sessions of 90 minutes to the group and after ending the training program and three month consistency period, both groups were tested in terms of alexithymia and self-efficacy of pain. analyzing data by multivariate covariance method showed that the behavioral-cognitive therapy has been effective on alexithymia and pain intensity of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain and these effects remain on patients in the high amount in the consistency stage, too. According to the results, behavioral-cognitive therapy causes to increasing the self-efficacy of pain and reducing the alexithymia and harmful effects of pain to the least level by changing nonefficiency behaviors, correction of adverse cognitions and destructive emotions related to pain.