Buckwheat is one of the pseudocereals grown annually in hilly regions of India. It belongs to the family Polygonaceae and genus (Fagopyrum spp.) Buckwheat is adaptable to extreme cold temperatures, stress conditions of water, less soil fertility and varying climatic conditions, making it a sustainable crop. A literature search on Buckwheat was done using PubMed and Google search engines and reviewed to prepare an overview of its cultivation, nutritional and health value. In India, twenty species of Buckwheat are cultivated across various hilly regions. Out of these only nine species have desirable nutritional value and two are commonly grown. They are Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Common buckwheat) and Fagopyrum tataricum (Tartary buckwheat). However, the cultivation of Buckwheat has declined in the 20th century making it an underutilized crop. Buckwheat has good amount of nutrients and many health benefits. There is a need to research about this under-utilized crop and create awareness as this crop has many nutritional and health benefits.