Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a vascular disorder affecting the microvasculature of the retina. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of the retina. If untreated, it may lead to blindness which is usually preventable if retinopathy is diagnosed early and treated promptly. As the prevalence of diabetes is rising, the systemic complications that include retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and involvement of the cardiovascular system are also increasing. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in the world. Prevention of retinopathy needs early diagnosis. In ophthalmology, Color Doppler imaging is a new method that enables us to assess the orbital vasculature. It allows for simultaneous two-dimensional anatomical and Doppler evaluations of the retinal artery. Objectives: The study aims to evaluate the ocular blood flow in patients with diabetes mellitus with no ocular symptoms. Methods: Color Doppler evaluation of 50 diabetic patients (100 eyes) was done with Siemens Sonoline G-50 machine with a High-frequency probe (5 Mega Hertz-7.5 Mega Hertz). Doppler spectral analysis of Ophthalmic Arteries (OA) and Central Retinal Arteries (CRA) was done. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), End-Diastolic Velocity (EDV), resistive index (RI), and S/D ratio were calculated. Peak Systolic Velocity (PSV), End Diastolic Volume (EDV), and Resistance Index (RI) were measured in all patients in both eyes. Results: The PSV of CRA in diabetics was significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05). The EDV of CRA in diabetics was also significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05). The RI of CRA is significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) in diabetics. The 95% confidence interval is observed in PSV, EDV, and RI of CRA in diabetics. Conclusions: There was a statistically significant difference between the PSV, EDV, and RI of CRA in diabetics. This significant difference could be due to the circulatory changes in blood vessels in diabetics. No significant difference was made in OA in diabetics. This study concludes that retinal hemodynamic changes were present even before the clinical manifestations of retinopathy in diabetics.
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