Research Article - International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences ( 2022) Volume 11, Issue 12
Assessment of Knowledge about National Deworming Day and Impact of Deworming Training among Rural School Teachers in MaharashtraRahul Ambekar*
Rahul Ambekar, Department of Life science, University of Mumbai, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 19-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. IJMRHS-22-69626; Editor assigned: 21-Jul-2022, Pre QC No. IJMRHS-22-69626 (PQ); Reviewed: 04-Aug-2022, QC No. IJMRHS-22-69626; Revised: 19-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. IJMRHS-22-69626 (R); Published: 28-Oct-2022
Soil transmitted helminths are cosmopolitan in distribution. In India it affects 241 million children aged mainly 3-8 years. These children account for over 68 percent of children in this age group and close to 28 percent of children worldwide who are thought to be at risk of soil transmitted helminthes infections. Study was conducted in rural schools in a Sangli district of Maharashtra. Online questionnaire was circulated to teachers out of 160 teachers 40 teachers didn’t give consent in the form for participating in study. So, N=120 individuals who have given consent to participate in the study
KeywordsHelminths infections, Cosmopolitan, Questionnaire
Soil transmitted helminths are cosmopolitan in distribution. In India it affects 241 million children aged mainly 3-8 years. These children account for over 68 percent of children in this age group and close to 28 percent of children worldwide who are thought to be at risk of Soil transmitted helminths infections. It severely affects their physical wellbeing in turn it affects their educational outcome.
These parasite illnesses are spread easily among children through contact with infected soil and are caused by poor sanitation and hygiene. Chronic worm infection in children has far reaching and severe repercussions. In India, undernutrition and anaemia in children are well documented: Over 7 out of 10 children aged 6 to 59 months are anaemic, with anaemia rates much higher in rural areas. In India, about half of children under the age of five are stunted and about 43% are severely stunted. The prevalence of anaemia and underweight in girls and boys aged 15-19 years is 56 percent and 30 percent, respectively.
Worm infestation is a major public health problem; it poses greater threat to child’s survival. Initiative like mass level deworming program can reduce the burden of infection. Rather than creating additional new distribution routes, the school and Anganwadi based deworming programme approach for mass deworming provides an easy means to reach large numbers of target-age group children using existing infrastructure. The goal of national deworming day is to provide a comprehensive solution to ensure that every child in our country is worm-free .
Periodic mass deworming, appropriate sanitation to reduce soil contamination with infective eggs and comprehensive health education to prevent reinfection were three significant and crucial strategies for long-term worm infection control and elimination .
Deworming is well regarded as a cost-effective strategy to improve scholastic attainment and health in school-aged children who have a high prevalence and severity of Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH) infections and bear the majority of the disease burden . Deworming treatments have been demonstrated to be effective in lowering worm infestations in school-aged children [4-6].
Materials and Methods
• Study design: Cross sectional study.
• Study population: Rural school teachers.
• Study site: Online based survey among rural school teachers.
• Study tool: Semi structured questionnaire.
• Study period: February 2021.
Study was conducted in rural schools in a Sangli district of Maharashtra. Online questionnaire was circulated to teachers out of 160 teachers. 40 teachers didn’t give consent in the form for participating in study. So, N=120 individuals who have given consent to participate in the study. This is study is conducted through online Google forms which is a cloud based data management tool.
Semi structured questionnaire is sent to rural public school teachers which contains questions that evaluates Knowledge attitude and perception of school teachers on soil transmitted helminthes infection.
The results show in Table 1.
|Demographic characteristics||Number of teachers||Percentage (%)|
Table 1: Demographic characteristic of Teachers.
Majority 89 (74.16%) teachers are in age group of 20-40 years. Regarding gender of the teachers, 88 (73.33%) were females (Table 2).
|National deworming day||Teachers (n)||Percentage|
|Public health concern||Teachers (n)||Percentage|
|Person to person transmission||No. of teachers||Percentage|
|Diseases that are covered under NDD||No. of teachers||Percentage|
Table 2: Overview of teachers on NDD.
Total 78 (65%) have registered their answers as 10 Feb and 107 (89.16%) felt that worm infestation in children is public health concern.
Only 14 (11.6%) has registered that Person to person transmission happens. 95 (79.16%) has rightly said that worm infestation is covered under national deworming day (Table 3).
|Age group of children covered under NDD||No. of Teachers||Percentage|
|Symptoms of worm infestation||No. of Teachers||Percentage|
|Worm in stools||66||55.7|
|Why deworming is important?||No. of Teachers||Percentage|
|Child grows faster and healthier||53||44.9|
|Resistant to other infection||75||63.6|
|Attends school regularly||13||11|
|Wash infrastructure in school||No. of Teachers||Percentage|
|Wash hand and hygiene||52||43.33|
|Water sanitation and hygiene||65||54.16|
Table 3: knowledge assessment of teachers on soil transmitted Helminths.
63 (52.5%) said age group of Children Covered under NDD is 1-19 years. Symptoms of worm infestation have been given as a multiple choice question. 90 (76.9%) have registered stomach pain as major symptom for worm infestation. 66 (55.7%) have registered worms in stool as major symptom for worm infestation. 25 (21.4%) have registered fatigue in students as major symptom for worm infestation (Figure 1). 19 (16.2%) have registered fatigue in students as major symptom for worm infestation. 33 (28.2%) have registered vomiting as major symptom for worm infestation. Deworming importance has been recorded as multiple choice answers (Figure 2). 53 (44.9%) teachers felt that deworming children is important because child grows faster and healthier. 7 (5.9%) teachers felt that deworming children is important because children learns better. 75 (63.6%) teachers felt that deworming children is important because children become resistant to other infection. 13 (11%) teachers felt that deworming children is important because children attend school regularly because of deworming. 65 (54.16%) teachers rightly documented wash infrastructure in school is water sanitation and hygiene (Table 4).
|Albendazole can be combined with IFA tablets||No. of teachers||Percentage|
|Is it safe for children to consume the deworming tablet without having a meal?||No. of Teachers||Percentage|
|Can deworming tablet be given to a sick child?||No. of Teachers Teachers||Percentage|
|Mop Up Day (MUD)||No. of Teachers||Percentage|
|To give deworming tablet if dose is missed||79||65.83|
|Parents teachers meeting day||15||12.5|
|Day for vaccination in school||15||12.5|
|Treatment given in case of worm infestation||No. of Teachers||Percentage|
Table 4: Knowledge on treatment of helminths.
59 (49.1%) teachers think that Albendazole can be combined with IFA tablets. 99 (82.5%) teachers think that it is safe for children to consume the deworming tablet without having a meals. 79 (65.83%) teachers think that mop up day means they give deworming tablet if it is missed. 8 (65%) teachers think that deworming tablet can be given to a sick child. 102 (85%) said Albendazole is the treatment given for worm infestation (Table 5).
|Underwent Training for deworming||No. of teachers||Percentage|
|Response in case of adverse effects(first response)||No. of Teachers||Percentage|
|Report to nearby health Centre||115||95.83|
|Report to headmaster||1||0.83|
|Report to parents||4||3.33|
|Response when child chokes the tablet||No. of Teachers||Percentage|
|Allow the child to cough and give him or her drinking water||22||18.33|
|Pat with the hand on the upper back of the child to dislodge the object from the airway||66||55|
|Call for helpline nearest hospital||32||26.66|
|Period of stay after taking tablet||No. of Teachers||Percentage|
Table 5: Practices of teachers regarding drug administration.
69 (57.5%) has said thirty minutes as period of stay after taking tablet. 66 (55%) has said rightly Pat with the hand on the upper back of the child to dislodge the object from the airway when child chokes the tablet (Table 6).
|Age Group||Number (%)||P value|
|Training underwent||Number (%)||P value|
Table 6: Association between sociodemographic details and deworming training underwent.
|Score||Number of teachers||Mean ± SD||P value|
|Satisfactory||68||8 ± 1.22||<0.0001|
|Not satisfactory||52||4 ± 0.95|
Table 7: Mean score of 68 teachers (satisfactory) and 52 teachers (not satisfactory).
Questions in the questionnaire have been taken from the operational guidelines for health workers and each correct answer of the study group is given score. Total score of 12 is calculated. Those who have scored equal to or more than 50% right answers are considered satisfactory and those who score less than 50% answers are considered not satisfactory score. 48 teachers out of 120 had undergone training for deworming. Correlation between age and the score is done and found that P value=0.376. Since, P value is >0.05 both the variables age and score secured by teachers on assessment of knowledge on deworming are not statistically significant.
Mean score is 6.3 ± 2.23. 68 teachers had satisfactory score with mean 8 ± 1.22. Teachers who had scored satisfactorily had been compared with not satisfactory score, p value is <0.001 so that we conclude that the score is statistically significant.
Njomo DW et al. had conducted a cross sectional study among preschool teachers in Kenya. They had reported that preschool teachers lacked information about deworming and worm infestation among children, therefore training them to help with community sensitization and drug administration would be beneficial. According to the findings, pre-school teachers are a potential resource should be used to teach young children basic water and sanitation practices.
AL-Delaimy AKA et al. had conducted a cross sectional study to assess health education learning package among school children in Malaysia and reported that there was a significant link between demographic variables and knowledge, such as the source of information (clinics/hospitals, mass media and the internet), signs and symptoms (lack of appetite, blood in stool and poor performance), preventive measures (washing hands before eating, washing vegetables before consumption and boiling drinking water) and transmission.
In the present study teachers who had attended awareness programs and training has scored significantly well compared to teachers who are not trained. Blanton E, et al. has done a study to evaluate role of school children in promotion of water treatment and handwashing in schools. Students and teachers received training on hygiene by which student absenteeism had drastically reduced.
Ziegelbauer et al. had study on effect of santation on soil transmitted helminths; they had reported that use of sanitary latrine can decrease the burden of Soil transmitted helminths infection.
Preschool children and school age children are at high-risk groups for worm infestation. School teachers play an important role in educating the students and their parents about importance of deworming and sanitation that can improve their overall health and quality of life.
Hence this study is conducted to assess knowledge perception and behaviour of school teachers on soil transmitted helminths infection.
- Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. National Deworming Day. New Delhi, India, 2015.
- World Health Organization. Soil-transmitted helminth infections. News-room, January 10, 2022.
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