One of the striking features of ancient Persian civilization is the importance of medical sciences. One testimony to this is the foundation of Gondishapur University 1745 years ago in the south-western Persia (Iran). Gondishapur was one of the major cities of Persian Empire which was ordered by the Sassanid king, Shapur I (241-272 A. D) to be built in 271 A. D. The city was built by employing Roman and Greek war prisoners after defeating a Roman army led by Emperor Valerian. Gondishapur was the greatest intellectual center and medical school of its time. It was one of the largest hospitals of the ancient world which hosted eminent scientists and physicians from around the world to do their research and practice medicine. In 651 A. D during the final years of Sassanid Empire the city was conquered by a Muslim Arab invasion. This led to the gradual emigration of the physicians to Baghdad and consequently to the demise and final closing of the center. After 12 centuries of being closed-down, Gondishapur (Jundishapur) University was reopened in 1955 in Ahvaz, the central city of Khuzestan province. Currently, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS) has: 650 faculty members, 7000 students studying at bachelors, masters and PhD levels, fellowship and higher degrees in 163 different fields and 15000 staff. The university is one of the most prestigious universities in Iran and is type one university based on the rating of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education.