Background: Genomics is a science, which for decades has enabled us to study the variability of the genetic material of every living being. Using new Genome Sequencing Technologies (GWAS), research has demonstrated the impact of our genetic material on the risk of injury, especially in athletes.
Methods: Variants of several genes and combinations of genes have been associated with an altered risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. An anterior cruciate ligament rupture would be twice as likely in a person with a family history of anterior cruciate ligament rupture.
In this review of the literature, we attempted to establish a list of genes that would be involved in the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury and to understand how.
Results: COL1A1, COL3A1, COL5A1, COL12A1, GDF5, MMP, ELN, FBN-2, VEGFA, KDR, NGFB, HIF1A, ACAN, BGN, DCN, FMOD, LUM, Il-1B, Il-6 or even TNF, are as many genes or combinations of genes which code for proteins playing a role in the size and composition of muscle fibers, flexibility, structures and functions of tendons and ligaments but also in signaling pathways such as angiogenesis, inflammation and fibrillogenesis.
Conclusion: This study also serves to focus on genetic screening for the follow-up, support and prevention of athlete injuries.