Prevalence of diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes is increasing. One of the environmental risk factors of this disease is persistent organic pollutants. Studies have obtained different results in the field of association of different congeners of persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls with type 2 diabetes. In this review study (systematic review and meta-analysis), the authors aimed to evaluate the association of different congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls with type 2 diabetes in both prospective and cross-sectional studies. After a systematic review, 6 prospective and 9 cross-sectional studies were evaluated. Mean of odds ratio and heterogeneity for all the studies were OR=1.97; CI (1.57-2.39) and I2=42.9%; ρheterogeneity=0.009, respectively. Also, mean of odds ratio for the prospective studies (OR=1.59; CI(1.29-1.95); I2=2.37%; ρheterogeneity=0.42) was less than that of the crosssectional studies (OR=2.4; CI (1.71-3.36); I2=49.8%; ρheterogeneity= 0.025). Increase in different congeners of PCBs in the serum and adipose tissue can significantly increase the prevalence type 2 diabetes (p value<0.001). This study supports a positive association of polychlorinated biphenyls in the serum and adipose tissue with type 2 diabetes.