Tongue carcinoma is an aggressive malignant type of tumor that has a poor prognosis. Since the etiological factors of the condition are largely unknown, the study of biomolecular markers is helpful for the early diagnosis of the condition and the evaluation of prognostic factors, and the selection of treatment. Based on the literature review, IL-6, IL-8, and HPV have been found to assist in an early diagnosis. High expression of vimentin, HIF-1α, MALAT-1, and SOX-2 and low E-cadherin expression are associated with low survival rates due to tongue carcinoma due to metastasis progression. We present a mini-review of the biomolecular markers that help to detect tongue carcinoma.