Introduction: The chalazion is a common eyelid lesion that arising from obstruction of the Meibomian glands within the tarsal plate. The sebaceous material accumulated within the eyelid interstitium will lead to blockage of glands. It occurs equally in males and females may affect people of all ages, occurs often in adults aged 30-50 years. It can manifest as solitary or multiple lumps. It is more common in the upper eyelid. Risk factors that may cause chalazion formation include seborrheic dermatitis, rosacea, chronic blepharitis, high lipid blood concentration, viral infection, poor lid hygiene, stress, eyelid trauma, gastritis, hormonal changes, vitamin A deficiency, smoke. Most of the chalazia are self-limited. However, some cases may need warm compresses, corticosteroid injection, or surgical evacuation and removal. Objective: To summarize most of the literature reviews about risk factors of chalazion and to provide a highly evident base resource to all ophthalmologists to revise the most common risk factors of chalazion formation. Method: For doing this review, Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct Database were used to identify relevant articles published until July 2020. The search was done by using the following descriptors chalazion, risk factors, and pathophysiology. Conclusion: The most common eyelid lesion is chalazion that arising from obstruction of the Meibomian glands within the tarsal plate. Blepharitis is one of the most common risk factors and other significant factors such as seborrheic dermatitis, rosacea, high lipid blood concentration, gastritis, hormonal changes, vitamin A deficiency viral infection, stress, eyelid trauma, poor lid hygiene, and smoking.