Compliance is a behaviour resulting from a specific set of cues and consequences. It is a self-care behaviour which entails obedience to a directive whereas noncompliance is self-care deficit, which calls for rejection of particular behaviour which may result in dissonance and may lead to the development of metabolic abnormalities in renal patients. To understand compliance, it is necessary to look for modifying and enabling factors affecting readiness to undertake recommended behaviour. It has been recognised that poverty, denial of illness, lack of control over life, non-supportive environment, old age, female gender and lower socioeconomic status, affect compliance, which is assumed to be a major obstruction to the effective management of disease and therapeutic disciplines. Diverse direct as well as indirect methods have been identified to measure compliance. Out of numerous methods, none of the methods appear to be completely reliable and valid, although biological assay is considered most accurate among all, as it is not affected by human judgements. To prevent complications due to noncompliance, measures should be adopted for improvement which not only entails role of physician and dietician but also of family. In health care system, compliance check is of prime importance, while aiming for better quality of care and management of patients.