Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease which has been recognized as the most common zoonotic infection in the world. It affects human beings and many other species of vertebrates .Most commonly, the infection is acquired by direct or indirect exposure to urine of reservoir animals through contaminated soil, mud & water entering via small abrasions or breaches in the skin & mucous membranes during occupational, recreational or vocational activities. The signs & symptoms resemble a wide range of bacterial & viral diseases & sometimes can present as food poisoning, chemical poisoning & snake bite also due to which the diagnosis is often missed. This review article aims to focus on the role of Dark Field Microscopy (DFM), culture, Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA), Macroscopic Slide Agglutination test (MSAT), Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) and Faine’s criteria in the diagnosis of leptospirosis.
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