Depression and Anxiety among COVID-19 Survivors: A Cross-sectional Analytical Study in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia | Abstract

International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences (IJMRHS)
ISSN: 2319-5886 Indexed in: ESCI (Thomson Reuters)


Depression and Anxiety among COVID-19 Survivors: A Cross-sectional Analytical Study in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Author(s):Reem Mohamed Qattan* and Amal Hassan Alghamdi

Background and Aim: Limited research has focused on the follow-up status of COVID-19 survivors, particularly in terms of their psychological status. Hence, this work sought to assess the depression and anxiety levels of COVID-19 survivors in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: This cross-sectional analytical study included COVID-19 survivors from the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia from December 2020 to March 2021. Data on recovery of patients were obtained from the Health Electronic Service Network (HESN) portal, and patients were contacted to answer the validated General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) questionnaires (English and Arabic) for anxiety and depression assessment. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, reliability analysis, and regression analyses were used to analyze and present the data. Results: GAD-7 anxiety and PHQ-9 depression scores of 215 participants were shown to be 7.00 ± 5.6 (min=0, max=21) and 8.96 ± 6.9 (min=0, max=27), with three-fourths of patients exhibiting mild-to-moderate anxiety (75.3%, n=162), while two-thirds experienced mild-tomoderate depression (65.1%, n=140). The Chi-square test revealed significant differences in the GAD-7 anxiety levels of participants relative to nationality (p=0.004) and marital status (p=0.007). Significant differences in the PHQ-9 depression levels relative to age (p=0.043), gender (p=0.001), and marital status (p=0.002) were also observed. Regression analysis revealed nationality (p=0.002) and marital status (p=0.001) as the most significant predictors for anxiety, while gender (p=0.016) and marital status (p=0.002) were the most significant for depression. Conclusion: A large proportion of survivors only experienced mild-to-moderate anxiety and depression. Though not moderately severe-to-severe, mental health care attention from a clinician, psychiatrists, and family members is still needed.

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