Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease produced by Leishmania parasite and is transmitted by sandfly. The aim of this study was to investigating the epidemiology of Cutaneous leishmaniasis and different aspects of treatment in children with 10 years of age and under in Isfahan Province. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 3143 child cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Isfahan province during the March 2011 to March 2016. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic and clinical status of cutaneous leishmaniasis in children. The relationship between treatment regime with demographic and clinical variables were examined using Chisquare test. Data of the study was analyzed by using SPSS 18, software. The significance level of the tests was considered as P�?�?0.05. Of 3143 cases, 52.3% were boys, 51.6% were in rural areas and 91.6 % were Iranian. Leishmania major with 91% of cases was the most common species of the cutaneous leishmaniasis. The relationship between treatment regime and age group , season, year of disease occurrence, Leishmania parasite, residential area, nationality, travel history, travel location and simultaneous disease in other family members were statistically significant as (P<0.05). Children in Isfahan Province are at high risk of disease occurrence. Cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment in Iranian children was consistent with cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment guideline and scientific evidence. However, the process for combating the animal reservoirs and mosquito vector should be considered as a priority to control disease. Furthermore, the facilities should be provided for accurate and timely diagnosis and treatment of patients.
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