The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing each year worldwide due to the increase of its etiological factors. Several conditions have been linked to the evolution of the CKD including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, overweight/obesity, etc. CKD can lead to more harmful conditions such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CKD starts with mild kidney damage as stage 1 and progress without treatment to stage 5 (end-stage CKD), which eventually results in kidney failure. The epidemiology of the CKD depends strongly on socio-economic status and comorbidities. Therefore, this review aimed to identify the common etiological factors in Saudi Arabia in light of the available literature from Saudi Arabia. The review mainly focused on the studies devoted to the CKD from Saudi Arabia published up to March 2019. The studies were identified through searches of the Medline database, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar, using the keywords: chronic kidney disease with DM, hypertension, obesity, glomerulonephritis, nephritis, renal failure, and Saudi Arabia. Only papers in the English language were included.