Background: São Tomé and Príncipe (STP) is a least developed country (LDC) on Sub-Saharan Africa, in which was detected a high prevalence of sensorineural Hearing Loss (SNHL). HL is a common condition with both genetic and environmental causes, and it greatly impacts on global health. STP population has leading with additional health problems over the years, such as anaemia and malaria infection. The present study aims to identify the correlation between the most prevalent G6PD variants and the high prevalence of HL in STP population. Methods: A sample of 316 individuals collected during Humanitarian Missions in STP, was retrospectively studied in a case-control approach to evaluate the role of G6PD gene variants in individual susceptibility to HL and it correlation with other potential risk factors. Results: The results obtained showed an increased risk for those cases that have reported malaria infection (OR 1.867, CI 95% [1.107-3.48]) in global population. The same effect of increased risk was found after stratification for male gender (OR 3.721 CI 95% [1.631-8.489]). Conclusions: Our results did not allow us to correlate any specific variant of G6PD gene with HL. However, emphasize the hypothetical correlation between malaria infection and the increased risk for HL.