Background: Diabetes may affect the physical performance, development of the side effects of disease, mental state and health status and life quality of patients. Accordingly, the present research seeks to study the correlation between self-caring behaviors and life quality in relation with health of the elderly suffering from diabetes. Method: This correlational descriptive research was carried out on 262 elderly suffering from diabetes who resorted to selected hospitals of Tehran by data collection in 2005-06 using demographic information, Toubert and Glasgow self-caring, and life quality of the elderly questionnaires. Descriptive and interpretive statistics (Pearson’s correlation coefficient) in SPSS v.16 was used for data analysis. Level of significance was set to 0.05. Results: Of the 262 elderly suffering from diabetes, 58% were male and 42% were female with an average age of 65.78 ± 5.69 years old. The average self-caring score was 44.74 ± 11.90 (average) and the life quality associated with health was 190.52 ± 28.18 (relatively good). A positive and significant correlation was also observed between self-caring and life quality associated with health (P < 0.0001, r = 0.28). Conclusion: The results of this research pointed to a significant and positive correlation between self-caring behaviors and life quality associated with health. Thus, the future plans of the country need to pay particular attention to this vulnerable group and propose the necessary strategies to improve the life quality of these people and provide them with special services.