The success of faculty members of medical sciences universities to promote higher ranks is through long-term evaluation of four educational, research, executive, and cultural performances them. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in non-systematic review form in 2016 to under title of pathology of faculty members’ rank promotion in universities and higher education institutions affiliated to the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran.It was conducted based on views of experts and searching the international databases such as Thomson Reuters, Scopus, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Iranian databases such as Magiran, SID, Iranmedex. Database without language restriction, since 2000 sources, with the MeSH term "Faculty promotion". At first, in the initial search,188 articles were found, and finally, 21 of them which were related to the subject of this research were used.The promotion indicators of faculty members to ranks of assistant professor, associate professor and full professor are based on regulations of faculty member promotion. Paper-orientation and lack of attention to educational activities, the lack of appropriate quality and quantity indicators to assess the four activities of promotion, subjectivity of some promotion indicators, lack of transparent and fair promotion practices, heterogeneous processes and lack of expertized forces in promotion committees in some universities, lack of using promotion automation system in some universities, prolonged promotion process, unnecessary bureaucratic requirements, adding cultural Article in faculty member promotion since 2011 without covering all cultural activities examples are considered as major problems in faculty member promotion process.