The Indian population is passing through a nutritional transition with a rise of non-communicable disease burden like cardiovascular disease. Aims: The overall aim was to provide detailed information on the current cardiovascular functions, nutritional status and obesity indices among Baiga and Gond tribes of Madhya Pradesh and to compare with other population groups in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 177 males of Baiga and Gond tribes of Madhya Pradesh ranging in range from 20-50 years. Stature, Weight, circumferences, skin fold thicknesses, body fat percentage and physiological measurement were taken. Obesity indices like body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), grand mean thickness (GMT) were computed. Cardiovascular functions were assessed by taking systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) pressure, heart rate and pulse rate. Results: Gond males were found to be taller and heavier than Baiga males. Upper arm circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference and chest normal circumference were all found to be significantly higher among Gond males as compared to Baiga males. Among the adiposity measurements only the body mass index (BMI) and Grand Mean Thickness were found to be more among Gond males as compared to Baiga males. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), pulse rate (PR) was found to have greater mean value among Gond males but the differences were found to be statistically non-significant. All India comparison on these variables has also been made. Conclusion: Subjects belonging to different population groups of India showed marked differences in different body dimensions, adiposity indices and cardiovascular functions. Gender differences were also seen with reference to adiposity measures.