Objective: We hypothesized that asprosin might be increased during pregnancy and gestational diabetes (GD) suggesting a potential role in food intake stimulation during pregnancy and suggesting a role in prediction of GD so, we analyzed changes in plasma asprosin levels in pregnant and non-pregnant rats with and without gestational diabetes. Methods: 40 female rats divided into 4 groups; control non-pregnant, normal pregnant, untreated GD and insulin-treated GD groups. In all groups, body weights (BW), body length, body mass index (BMI) and food intake, levels of asprosin, estrogen, progesterone, serum levels of insulin, glucose and lipid profile were measured. HOMAIR and HOMA-B were calculated. Results: Asprosin levels were found higher in pregnant, GDM and insulin-treated groups in comparison with control group (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.0001 and p ≤ 0.0001 respectively). Asprosin levels were higher in GDM group during early and late pregnancy in comparison with the pregnant group (p ≤ 0.0001). Asprosin levels decreased in insulin-treated group compared with GDM group (p ≤ 0.0001). Asprosin levels correlated positively with body weight (r=0.821, p<0.05), body mass index (p<0.05), food intake, serum glucose (r=0.9958, p<0.00001), HOMA-IR, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and VLDL and negatively correlated to HOMA-B, HDL, estradiol and progesterone levels. Conclusion: asprosin levels were significantly elevated during normal pregnancy suggesting that asprosin may have a physiological role during pregnancy as it may participate in stimulation of appetite and food intake commonly occurring during pregnancy. GD rats were found to have significant higher asprosin compared to pregnant group. Asprosin may be a potential factor predicting diabetes mellitus during pregnancy.