Introduction: Surgical Site Infections (SSI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality as it is known to increase the length of hospital stay, revision surgery, and re-operation. Identifying patients at risk of developing SSI before surgery is the key to prevent SSI. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study that was performed at the orthopedic department in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. SSIs were defined according to The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) case definition for surgical site infection. Potential risk factors for postoperative wound infection were collected. All the data were analyzed by SPSS 23.0, in which p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 214 patients were included in the study and the incidence of surgical site infection following spine surgery was (N=21, 9.81%). Obesity, Diabetes, location of surgery, and ASA score duration of surgery, length of hospital stay, and location/level of operated vertebrae were all found to have a significant correlation with the SSI p<0.05. Discussion: Surgical Site Infection (SSI) following spine surgery is not an uncommon complication as rates of spinal surgical site infection reported from different centers have varied from 0% to 15%, depending on the indication of the surgery, the site, the approach, and the use of instrumentation. Many risk factors are reported; patient-related risk factors like diabetes mellitus, obesity, and older age, other surgical risk factors including prolonged operative time, and improper aseptic techniques in the operating room. Conclusion: Having a strong background of SSI risk factors and predictors is core to preventing the incidence of SSI and further enhance and optimize operative outcomes, as well as increasing the cost-effectiveness of the surgical intervention.
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