Objective: To find the prevalence and association of thyroid dysfunction with anemia/body iron status among Northern Border Saudi population. Materials and methods: The present cross-sectional study included 150 male and female participants visiting the out-patient clinic in Arar Central Hospital, Arar, Saudi Arabia. Blood samples were collected for estimation of thyroid hormones, RBC count, hemoglobin, MCV, MCH, TIBC, serum iron and ferritin. Results: Thyroid disorders were detected in 61.33% of the studied population and hypothyroidism (73 cases out of 92) was more prevalent than hyperthyroidism (19 cases out of 92) with higher prevalence observed among female participants (60.27%) as compared to males (39.72%). Higher prevalence of anemia (60.27%) and iron deficiency (49.31%) was observed among hypothyroid group as compared to hyperthyroid and euthyroid group which was characterized by significantly lower values of erythrocyte indices (RBC count, hemoglobin, MCV, MCH) and iron parameters (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation) in hypothyroid group as compared to hypothyroid and euthyroid group. Erythrocyte indices and iron parameters correlated positively with FT4 and negatively with TSH. Conclusion: The study demonstrates a high prevalence of thyroid abnormalities particularly hypothyroidism, accompanied by increased prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency indicating symbiotic relationship between thyroid gland function and body iron status. Future studies should be done in large samples and should include thyroid antibodies profile and urine iodine to identify the underlying mechanism and the etiological factors contributing to the development of thyroiditis-induced anemia.
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