Since before centuries, human tries hard to explore underwater and in 1940’s human-introduced an important and revolutionary gear i.e. scuba that allowed human-made long interaction in the underwater world. Since diving using pressure gas under pressure environment, it should be considered to remember gas law (Boyle’s law). The gas law gives a clear understanding of physiological consequences related to diving diseases such as barotrauma or condition in which tissue or organ is damage due to gas pressure. The organ which has direct effect related to compression and expansion of gas were lungs, ear, and sinus. These organs were common and potentially fatigue injury for a diver. In this article we shall review the history of scuba diving, physical stress caused underwater environment, physiology adaptation of lung, ear, and sinus, and diving disease.