International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences (IJMRHS)
ISSN: 2319-5886 Indexed in: ESCI (Thomson Reuters)

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Author(s):Sameer Saleem, Sundas Younas , Kamran Qayyum

Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), which is also called as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), is a rare histiocytic disorder which occurs due to the over-production of non Langerhans sinus histiocytes. It is a nonmalignant disorder that most frequently affects children and young adults and typically presents with fever, night sweats, nonpainful cervical lymphadenopathy, leukocytosis and an elevated ESR. Extranodal involvement may also occur, thus a variety of organs in the body can be affected. Although some viral etiology has been implicated, the disease generally is considered to have an unknown cause. RDD can often be misdiagnosed as lymphoma, leukemia or tuberculosis, so it is imperative to distinguish it from these conditions as well as other forms of histiocytosis because of difference in the modes of treatment. Diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease is based on biopsy of affected tissue. Biopsy showing the presence of emperipolesis, or the engulfment of lymphocytes and other immune cells by histiocytes that express S-100 antigen is diagnostic of Rosai-Dorfman disease. Once diagnosed, further workup including imaging studies are undertaken in order to determine the extent of the disease. In majority of cases, the disease resolves on its own however, treatments including corticosteroids, chemotherapy, surgical treatment or radiotherapy are carried out in severe or persistent disease or when organ function is at stake (e.g. breathing obstruction, kidney failure, visual problems). The case we report is that of a 16 year old girl who presented with a 6 month history of gradual onset drooping of left upper eyelid with mild proptosis of the left eye alongwith mild drooping of right upper eyelid, low grade fever, night sweats and cervical lymphadenopathy. Blood workup showed increased ESR, CT scan of orbits showed superior orbital masses and diagnostic biopsy revealed Rosai-Dorfman disease.

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