With advances in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), radiologist and otolaryngologists should have thorough knowledge of anatomy of paranasal sinus (PNS). Regarding this, sphenoid sinuses are the most variable among paranasal sinuses. the anatomical relationship of crucial neurovascular structures for example internal carotid artery (ICA) and optic nerve (ON) is extremely variable and these structures are at a risk during ESS. This article will help readers understand the relationship of neurovascular structures with sphenoid sinus (SS) more precisely.
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