Health and human rights are closely interrelated and has included in the WHO and UN constitution. India being a member of UN and WHO has incorporated the health and human rights in its constitution. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) being a long-term disease with far-reaching implications like social, financial and human rights related effects on patient, family, society and country. There is no previous data or studies on human rights in patients of CKD in India. Fifty patients of CKD stage 5, undergoing maintenance hemodialysis and 50 who underwent renal transplantation were studied. A questionnaire was given to each of the patient and the answers were recorded as per protocol and data analyzed by SPSS 15 for windows. All patients who underwent renal transplantation were aged <40 years and majority (96 %) of those on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) were >40 years. Fifty-six percent of patients were aware of the term human rights and there was no difference in awareness based on mode of therapy. Majority (87%) were not knowing about human rights violations and whom to approach whenever there is any violation. Only 26% of patients were employed; local committees supported most of those who underwent transplantation whereas majority of those on MHD were spending with family support and savings. Majority of those who underwent transplantation were satisfied with family and society support and were looking for opportunities for work. There is need to increase the awareness regarding human rights and its violations. There is also need to launch a national program to support the patients of CKD for the treatment and rehabilitation to increase the productivity.