Introduction: Esophageal cancer is a common malignancy that is fatal to a large extent. The incidence of esophageal cancer is significantly variable worldwide and squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type. About 15% of cancer cases raise in the region of the upper 1/3, 35% in the middle and 50% are in the area. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study on 102 pathology reports for 4 years between the years 2001-2004 from the Department of Pathology University of Medical Sciences carried out and the following results were obtained. This is a retrospective study conducted on 102 pathology reports for 4 years between the years 2001-2004 from the Department of Pathology in Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences and the following results were obtained. Findings: 102 cases develop 49% cancer cases and 18.5% pre-cancerous cases and normal cases developed only 12%. The most common age group has been the eighth decade of life (40%) and 92% of their age has been above 50 years old. The most common type is squamous cell carcinoma with 68% and adenocarcinoma developed 22% of cases. Among 35 cases that their area had been specified, cases develop from 11.5% upper 1/3 area, 34% middle area, 40% lower area and 14.5% of gastroesophageal junction. The average age of individuals with esophageal cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, Barrett's esophagus and Esophagitis has been 68.12, 67.4, 68.3, 50.8 and 46.3 years old, respectively. Male-to-female sex ratio was obtained for Esophageal cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma equal to 1.27/1, 1/1, 1.75/1, respectively. Conclusion: with regard to the results from this study, rate of incidence of esophageal cancer has reduced in men than other population and/or the rate of incidence of esophageal cancer has increased in women. The most area involved with 11 cases has been in the middle area of esophagus and by squamous cell carcinoma.