The Mauritian population has the highest life expectancy in Africa. However, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, stroke, influenza and pneumonia, and lung, breast and colon-rectum cancers are countering the health success of the country. Males, unlike females, are burdened by these diseases. The study assessed the contribution age and cause-specific mortality to the gap in life expectancy among males and females in Mauritius from 2005 to 2015. The role of the age and cause-specific mortality to life expectancy among males and females in Mauritius was decomposed using the Andreev decomposition approach. The study revealed that recorded mortality rates from diabetes, ischemic heart disease, stroke, influenza, and pneumonia were higher among males than females. Health promotion activities will need to be scaled for these causes of death especially among males to achieve national and international health goals.