Leishmaniasis, is one of the common diseases among humans and animals caused by different species of protozoa of the Leishmania genus species and is seen in three forms of cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral Leishmaniasis in humans. Leishmaniasis life cycle includes of living on a vertebrate creature and an invertebrate carrier. Humans, dogs and wild canines and a number of small mammals such as rodents or wild rodents, Hyrax (hare) and sloth which is a primate from the bear’s family in Central America and some species of marsupials are considered as the main repository of Leishmaniasis. Now cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in 88 countries, and its prevalence is estimated around 13 million people. Cutaneous leishmaniasis have been reported in 11 provinces out of 29 provinces in the country and is a health problem, Fars province and Shiraz is one of cutaneous leishmaniasis infection centers and Shiraz is the fourth focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Recently some studies on the identification of different species of rodents were conducted in different areas of Fars province. Since Fars province is one of the endemic areas of Leishmaniasis Zeiss and rodents as reservoirs of the disease and a lot of rodents are observed in passenger terminals of Shiraz There is the possibility of the spread of disease in case of the infection of the rodents and transition of the disease to passengers. Therefore 20 mice were hunted by trapping method from Kaveh and Karandish passenger terminal (10 rodents from each terminal). After taking blood sample from each rodent, a smear was provided for microscopic examination. Also, muzzle, ears and feet were sampled and after anatomy, internal organs of the animal such as the liver and spleen were sampled too and the samples were smeared too for microscopic examination. Totally, 50 samples including (ear, muzzle, liver, spleen, feet samples were provided from 10 rodents from each terminal (totally 20 rodents). Then due to the high sensitivity of the samples, DNA and PCR were extracted. In microscopic examination method none of the smears were positive while after PCR method among the 50 samples of the parts of mice bodies which were examined from Karandish terminal of Shiraz, 2 samples (liver) were infected to the major Lishmaniasis and among the 50 samples of the parts of the body of mice which were examined from Kaveh terminal of Shiraz, one sample (spleen) was infected to infantum lishmaniasis. Totally among the 100 samples provided from different parts of rodents (60 samples from 10 rodents from each terminal) 3 percent were positive. Since Fars province is one of the endemic areas of Lishmanisis and the rodents are considered as the disease reservoir and a lot of rodents are seen in the terminal of Shiraz, and according to the infection of these rodents and transmission of disease to the passengers, there is the possibility of the spread of disease. Therefore more investigations and the implementation of some actions such as the destruction of the rodents' nests can be an effective step in the field of prevention of further spread of the disease.
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