15% of couples struggle with infertility. A thorough medical history must be taken before conducting a physical, gynecological, and endocrine examination on a female patient with infertility. Several tests, including those assessing ovarian function and reserve, searching for uterine anomalies, and measuring tubal permeability, will be used to identify the causes of infertility. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent gynecological-endocrine condition that affects 7% to 15% of women of reproductive age and is the main cause of infertility. The effectiveness of behavioral, medicinal, and surgical therapies to increase fertility in women with PCOS has been studied. It is crucial to make lifestyle changes (quit smoking, start exercising, and, if required, lose weight). In the absence of additional female or male factors contributing to infertility, clomiphene citrate remains the first line of medical therapy for women with PCOS. Metformin should not be used solely to treat infertility unless a metabolic disorder is present, along with novel medications like myoinositol. When medical therapy fails, surgical procedures designed to increase ovulation and pregnancy rates are an option. In the management of infertility, ovarian drilling through laparoscopy or transvaginal hydro-laparoscopy is becoming more common. For PCOS, In vitro maturation and conception still stand as the third line of defense.
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