Background: Obesity is a known risk factor for both Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The relationship between obesity and these two disorders is complex and multifactorial. The aim is to study the prevalence of OSA in overweight and obese subjects and its association with Type 2 DM and other metabolic abnormalities.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was performed on 100 subjects with overweight/obese subjects in the age group of 18-65 yrs. OSA was diagnosed by overnight Polysomnography (PSG) and DM was confirmed with an oral glucose tolerance test, insulin resistance and secretion status were assessed by C-peptide and HOMA-IR.
Results: Mean weight of patients with OSA was 79.41 kg while that of those without OSA was 72.62 kg. Further, the mean fasting blood glucose of those with OSA was 142.4 ± 17.3 mg% and of those without OSA was 133.3 ± 7.7 mg%. Similarly, the mean fasting insulin level of those with OSA was 16.11 ± 10.47 uIU/mL while of those without OSA was 18.3 ± 22.06 uIU/mL. These correlations were found to be statistically significant.
Conclusion: Obesity, Type 2 DM, and cardio-metabolic events are all correlated. The study provides clear evidence that obstructive sleep apnea is associated with insulin resistance. Evaluation of insulin resistance in obese individuals with OSA should be highlighted and evaluated for early detection of metabolic diseasese.