Prevalence of Risk Factors of Essential Hypertension among Saudis in Riyadh City | Abstract

International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences (IJMRHS)
ISSN: 2319-5886 Indexed in: ESCI (Thomson Reuters)


Prevalence of Risk Factors of Essential Hypertension among Saudis in Riyadh City

Author(s):Bushra Elbashir*, Msab Al-dkheel*, Hamad Aldakheel, Nnaif Aruwished and Nasser Alodayani

Background and Objectives: Hypertension may be primary (also called essential), or secondary. The exact causes of primary or essential hypertension are not known, however, several risk factors may play a role, such as smoking, too much salt in the diet, and lack of physical activities. Lifestyle factors are critical determinants of blood pressure levels. This study aims to assess the prevalence of hypertension risk factors among Saudi Citizens in Riyadh City. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, in which questionnaires were used as the assessment tool for data collection. The data collection segments included socio-demographic data, the knowledge and attitude of lifestyle for hypertension, such as dietary factors, smoking, and physical activities. Various statistical analyses including frequency, percentile, and chi-square were applied, to assess the relationship and relative association between lifestyle and hypertension. Results: A total of 934 subjects responded, 13.6% of them were hypertensive and 75.2% were not hypertensive and 11.2% do not know if they were hypertensive or not. Despite the knowledge that 77.0% knew that smoking is a risk factor for hypertension, 22.5% of the males and 2.1% of the females still smoke daily. Data showed that 84.4% thought that, eating salty food was a risk factor for the development of hypertension, whereas 60.2% thought that eating fatty food was a risk factor for the development of hypertension. About 35.0% and 20.9% thought of eating vegetables and fruits respectively, as preventive measures against the development of hypertension, 16.6% and 23.1% of the subjects used to consume vegetables and fruits daily as recommended, 3.5% and 2.0% do not take salty and fatty food items respectively. Almost a fifth (19.7%) of all subjects from both sexes practiced exercise regularly, males do practice more regularly than females (25.1% versus 14.5%), Hypertensive subjects not practicing exercise were more than non-hypertensive subjects not practicing exercise (22.0% versus 13.7%). Conclusion: This study identified the determinants that significantly predicted the lifestyle risk factors for hypertension among Saudi Citizens, living in Riyadh city. It accentuates the need for increased health education, to quit smoking, having healthy food intake, and practice exercises regularly or having an active life.

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