The growth of the elderly and middle-aged population, and the life expectancy have changed the attitudes towards the seniors; Meanwhile, the importance of caring for the self-esteem among the seniors required to do this study in the field; which, its results can help to improve the seniors’ mental health. This study has been carried out aiming to measure the elderly’s self-esteem dwelling in Ahwaz Nursing Homes in 2014. This is a descriptive-comparative study carried out on 190 people of the seniors dwelling in Ahwaz nursing homes. For the eligible seniors, two questioners of Rosenberg’s Measuring Scale, and Cooper Smith’s Measuring Scale were filled out. The variables regression was determined by using SPSS statistical software, version 18. About 44% of participants in the study were aged from 60 to 65 years old. 68% were men, and 61% were married. Some 50% had 3 to 5 children. More than 43% received higher education. Some 53% were financially dependent. About 50% were self-employed. There was no significant difference between self-esteem among the male and female seniors. Also, there was no significant difference among the elderly’s self-esteem based on their marital status. But, there was a significant negative correlation between the total scores of self-esteem, and the marital status, the financial independence, and dwelling in the nursing homes. As, for the effect of the self-esteem on the elderly’s mental health, and their being highly affected by the life conditions, and with respect to the cultural, religious, and social position of Iran, as much as possible, the backgrounds should be provided for the seniors to dwell with their families; and, if dwelling in the nursing homes is the best choice, providing necessary services with high quality should be employed with grater attempts.